author = {Egle, Lukas and Rechberger, Helmut and Zessner, Matthias},
    title = {{O}verview and description of technologies for recovering phosphorus from municipal wastewater},
    journal = {{R}esources, {C}onservation and {R}ecycling},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {105},
    number = {Dezember},
    pages = {325--346},
    abstract = {{O}ver the past years, numerous technologies have been developed to recover phosphorus ({P}) fromwaste streams to repair currently broken nutrient cycles. {T}hese developments were largely triggeredby environmental considerations (sustainability, resource efficiency), concerns regarding the finite andgeopolitically concentrated deposits of raw phosphate ore, and phosphate price increases. {M}unicipalwastewater is a promising and viable source to recover {P} in larger quantities, to re-establish a cir-cular economy and therefore increase net use efficiency. {T}his work compiles the latest knowledge onapproaches to recover {P} from municipal wastewater and related waste flows with a specific focus on theexisting well-developed wastewater management infrastructure, available in significant parts of {E}urope(e.g., secondary treated effluent, digester supernatant, sewage sludge, sewage sludge ash). {A}bout 50 tech-nologies were identified at various levels of development (industrial-, full-, pilot- and laboratory scale).{T}he current selection of {P} recovery processes is broad and ranges from simple precipitation of dissolved {P}to complex multi-step approaches, and only a few of these displayed potential for full-scale implementa-tion. {T}hey are discussed with regard to their technical principles, process parameters, recovery efficiency,resource demand, possible effects on wastewater treatment, waste flows, and fate of pollutants. {W}e alsoevaluated them with respect to their rates of {P} removal from wastewater and their access points of {P}recovery. {F}or selected technologies, material flow models are presented to facilitate the understandingof even complex processes. {T}his work serves as a basis for future integrated comparative assessments ofselected recovery approaches according to technical, environmental and economic criteria.}

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