author = {Egle, Lukas and Rechberger, Helmut and Krampe, J{\"o}rg and Zessner, Matthias},
    title = {{P}hosphorus recovery from municipal wastewater: {A}n integrated comparative technological, environmental and economic assessment of {P} recovery technologies},
    journal = {{S}cience of the {T}otal {E}nvironment},
    year = {2016},
    volume = {571},
    pages = {522--542},
    doi = {10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.07.019},
    keywords = {recovery technologies, wastewater, sewage sludge (ash), heavy metals, material flow analysis, integrated assessment},
    abstract = {{P}hosphorus ({P}) is an essential and limited resource. {M}unicipal wastewater is a promising source of {P} via reuse and could be used to replace {P} derived from phosphate rocks. {T}he agricultural use of sewage sludge is restricted by legislation or is not practiced in several {E}uropean countries due to environmental risks posed by organic micropollutants and pathogens. {S}everal technologies have been developed in recent years to recover wastewater {P}. {H}owever, these technologies target different {P}-containing flows in wastewater treatment plants (effluent, digester supernatant, sewage sludge, and sewage sludge ash), use diverse engineering approaches and differ greatly with respect to {P} recycling rate, potential of removing or destroying pollutants, product quality, environmental impact and cost. {T}his work compares 19 relevant {P} recovery technologies by considering their relationships with existing wastewater and sludge treatment systems. {A} combination of different methods, such as material flow analysis, damage units, reference soil method, annuity method, integrated cost calculation and a literature study on solubility, fertilizing effects and handling of recovered materials, is used to evaluate the different {T}echnologies with respect to technical, ecological and economic aspects. {W}ith regard to the manifold origins of data an uncertainty concept considering validity of data sources is applied. {T}his analysis revealed that recovery from\par
flows with dissolved {P} produces clean and plant-available materials. {T}hese techniques may even be beneficial from economic and technical perspectives under specific circumstances. {H}owever, the recovery rates (a {M}aximum of 25{\%}) relative to the wastewater treatment plant influent are relatively low. \par
{T}he approaches that recover {P} from sewage sludge apply complex technologies and generally achieve effective removal of heavy metals at moderate recovery rates (~40-50{\%} relative to the {W}{W}{T}{P} input) and comparatively high costs. {S}ewage sludge ash is the most promising {P} source, with recovery rates of 60-90{\%} relative to the wastewater {P}. {T}he costs highly depend on the purity requirements of the recycled products but can be kept comparatively low, especially if synergies\par
with existing industrial processes are exploited.}

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