Nina Cernohlawek, P. Wobrauschek, C. Streli, N. Zöger:
"Parameter Studies for an optimized XRF-Determination of Pb in Bone";
JCPDS-International Centre for Diffraction Data,
One of the main threats to human health from heavy metals is associated with the exposure to
lead (Pb). In vivo X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF) of human bone is a widely used technique
to determine the total Pb body burden. The intention of this work was to study the feasibility of in
vivo L-shell XRF measurements of Pb in bone using X-ray tubes as excitation sources. Parameter
studies using direct tube excitation with various anode materials (Mo and W) and filters as well
as different secondary targets and low Z polarizers were performed with regard to the lowest
detection limits (LLD) achievable for Pb in bone matrix. A breakthrough for the development of
a portable spectrometer was achieved using of an air cooled low power (50W) Pd anode X-ray
tube, Mo secondary target and a Peltier cooled SDD detector. LLDs for Pb in bone were
determined from measurements on a plaster-of-paris standard without overlying tissue equivalent
material and found to be around 0.6 µg/g.
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