T. Falta, A. Limbeck, G. Stingeder, S. Hann:
"Ultra-trace analysis of palladium in human urine samples via flow-injection coupled with the ELAN 6100 DRC II ICP-MS";
The use of palladium as catalyst material in vehicles equipped with Otto engines has dramatically increased in recent years since Pd is cheaper and less sensitive to catalyst poisons than platinum. Furthermore, Pd catalysts can easier meet the strict threshold limits for exhaust emissions which were introduced within the European Union in 2000 and 2005 by the EU directives EURO Stages III and IV. As a consequence of these developments, the automotive catalytic converter became the main emission source of Pd into the environment. For a better assessment of the resulting health risks, intensive efforts have been made in recent years for the development of analytical methods which can routinely be applied in the field of biomonitoring. In addition to electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS), the application of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has proven advantageous since this analytical method possesses high sensitivity and provides the opportunity of isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS). The very low Pd concentrations in urine, as well as the comparatively high concentrations of interfering matrix elements, requires special sample pretreatment and enrichment techniques for the accurate determination of Pd. The method presented here for the ultra-trace determination of Pd in human urine includes the destruction of the organic matrix by ultraviolet (UV) digestion, the separation of interfering cations by cation exchange chromatography, the on-line enrichment via an automated flow injection analysis system (FIAS), as well as the accurate quantification of Pd via isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS).
Palldium, IDMS, Flow-Injection, ICP-MS
Erstellt aus der Publikationsdatenbank der Technischen Universitšt Wien.