"Consideration of Aging of Shotcrete in the Context of a 3-D Viscoplastic Material Model";
International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering,
The structure of the classical theory of viscoplasticity and its algorithmic formulation in the context of an operator split scheme is extended to account for the effect of aging. Within this framework, a 3-D multisurface constitutive model for shotcrete is proposed. A rotating-crack model based on the Rankine criterion is adopted in conjunction with a Drucker-Prager yield criterion for describing the mechanical behaviour of young concrete in the compressive regime. The model is suitable for the representation of the time-dependent behaviour of shotcrete including creep and the time dependence of strength and stiffness. A computationally effective return mapping scheme is achieved by formulating the material model in terms of the principal directions and transforming the obtained relations to global axes. Linearization of the return mapping algorithm yields the algorithmic tangent moduli.
Keywords: 3D, tunnel, NATM, soil, shotcrete, aging, material, model, viscoplasticity, cap-model, elasticity, shrinkage
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