H.A. Mang, H. Flögl:
"Analytical Prediction of Short-Term Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Panels, Slabs and Shells";
in: "1981 International Convention and Exposition of ASCE", ASCE, 1981, 12.
During the past decade analytical prediction of the short-term behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) panels, slabs, and, to a lesser degree, shells with the help of the Finite Element Method (FEM) has become a topic of intensive research. A number of state-of-the-arte lectures on FE analysis of RC structures was published some time ago by Bazant, Schnobrich and Scordelis . With regard to ultimate load analysis of thin shells, no application of curved thin-shell elements, representing a logical choice for FE analysis of shells, was reported in this publication.
The writer's tool for ultimate load analysis of shells and their special cases - panels and slabs - is a curved, tiangular, thin-shell element, originally developed by Thomas and Gallagher  for buckling of linear elastic shells. Within the framework of a layered FE-model, geometric and physical nonlinearity, cracking of concrete and yielding of the reinforcement is taken into account. Moreover, a new concept for consideration of tension stiffening, developed by the writers , , is applied. Following the theoretical considerations, results of ultimate load analysis of a panel, a slab and a shell are presented and compared to experimental or analytical resutls of other authors.
 Bazant, Z.P., Schnobrich, W.C., and Scordelis, A.C.. "Analisi delle Strutture in Cemento Armato mediante il Metodo degli Elementi Finite," Proceedings of Seminar held at Politecnico di Milano, Milan, Italy, June 20-23, 1978.
 Floegl, H., and Mang, H.A., "Tension Stiffening Concept for RC Panels Based on Bond Slip," Manuscript Submitted for Publication to Proc. ASCE, J. Struct.Div.
 Floegl, H., Mang, H.A., "On Tension Stiffening in Cracked Reinforced Concrete Slabs and Shells Considering Geometric and Physical Nonlinearity," Ing.-Arch., in print.
 Thomas, G.R., and Gallagher, R.H., "A Triangular Thin Shell Finite Element: Linear Analysis," NASA Contractor Report 2482, Washington, D.C., 1976.