Ch. Hellmich, H.A. Mang, F.-J Ulm:
"Hybrid Method for Quantification of Stress States in Shotcrete Tunnel Shells: Combination of 3D in-situ Displacement Measurements and Thermochemoplastic Material Law";
Computers and Structures, 79 (2001), S. 2103 - 2115.

Kurzfassung englisch:
A hybrid method for quantification of the loading of shotcrete tunnel shells, combining thermochemomechanical material modelling of shotcrete with 3D in-situ displacement measurements in the framework of the non-linear Finite Element method, is presented. Histories of displacement fields, determined from in-situ measurements by suitable interpolation functions, are prescribed on the outer boundary of a part of the tunnel, discretized in 2D or 3D. The main goal is the determination of fields of safety degrees, amounting to 0 % for the unloaded shell and to 100 % for the material loaded up (locally) to the compressive strength. A comprehensive investigation of the significance of the individual material characteristics of shotcrete as well as that of the third dimension in space on the structural behavior is performed. The Sieberg tunnel in Lower Austria, constituting a part of the high capacity railway line between Vienna and Salzburg, is used as the vehicle for this investigation.

Keywords: shotcrete, thermochemoplasticity, 3D displacement measurements, New Austrian Tunneling Method, 3D Finite Element simulations, tunnel shell

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