Contributions to Proceedings:

Ch. Hellmich, J. Macht, R. Lackner, H.A. Mang, F.-J Ulm:
"Phase Transition in Shotcrete: from Material Modelling to Structural Safety Assessment";
in: "Shotcrete: Engineering Developments", E.S. Bernard (ed.); Balkema, Lisse, 2001, 173 - 184.

English abstract:
This paper contains a contribution to material modeling of shotcrete in the framework of thermodynamics of chemically reactive porous media. The focus is on the practically highly relevant calcium aluminate hydration reaction of low sulfate cements, taking place immediately after the spraying of shotcrete. What is of practical interest, is the immediate strength. Afterwards, the calcium silicates dominate the hydration process and, hence, the thermal, elastic, plastic, creep and shrinkage behavior of the material. The scope of the paper ranges from basic material modelling over respective experiments - focussing on adiabatic testing - to structural finite element (FE) analyses of tunnels driven according to the New Austrian Tunneling Method (NATM).

Keywords: NATM, shotcrete, hydration, tunneling, phase change

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