M. Clara, B. Strenn, N. Kreuzinger:
"Carbamazepine as a possible anthropogenic marker in the aquatic environment: investigations on the behaviour of Carbamazepine in wastewater treatment and during groundwater infiltration";
Water Research, 38 (2004), 4; S. 947 - 954.

Kurzfassung englisch:
Sewage treatment plant (STP) effluents are significant sources of pharmaceutical residues in surface waters, where high concentrations of the antiepileptic drug Carbamazepine have been detected. The solids retention time (SRT) is the most important parameter for the design of STPs. It relates to the growth rate of microorganisms and to effluent concentrations. The influence of SRT on the removal of Carbamazepine was studied on lab-scale plants. The results from these tests were then validated on several full-scale plants. Due to the lack of suitable receiving waters and groundwater resources, one of these STPs has to infiltrate the treated wastewater into unsaturated soil. Here, groundwater samples at equal distances from the infiltration point were taken to estimate the behaviour of Carbamazepine during soil passage and within the groundwater. This antiepileptic drug seems to be very persistent in the environment, therefore qualifying as a suitable marker for anthropogenic influences in the aquatic environment.

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