R. Hornek, A. Pommerening-Röser, H. Koops, A.H. Farnleitner, N. Kreuzinger, A. K. T. Kirschner, R.L. Mach:
"Primers containing universal bases reduce multiple amoA gene specific DGGE band patterns when analysing the diversity of beta - ammonia oxidizers in the environment.";
Journal of Microbiological Methods,
Vertical flow constructed wetlands (VFCWs) with intermittent loading are very suitable for nitrification. Ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) are the limiting step of nitration. Therefore the AOB community inhabiting the filter substrate of a full-scale VFCW, receiving municipal wastewater, was investigated within this study. The diversity of the functional gene encoding the α-subunit of the ammonia monooxygenase (amoA), present only in AOB, was assessed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Only very few amoA sequence types dominated the wetland filter substrate, nevertheless a stable nitrification performance could be observed. The nitrification was stable but slightly reduced under wintry conditions but it has been shown that the same AOB could be identified also during the cold season. No spatial AOB pattern up to a depth of 50 cm could be observed within the filter body of the VFCW. The most prominent bands were excised from DGGE gels and sequenced. Sequence analyses revealed two dominant AOB lineages: Nitrosomonas europaea/ "Nitrosococcus mobilis" and Nitrosospira ("Cluster 0"). Species of the Nitrosomonas lineage are halotolerant or moderate halophilic and show a high affinity to ammonia. Accordingly, they are commonly found in conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In contrast, members of the Nitrosospira lineage are rarely present in WWTPs. Our observations indicate that the AOB community in this VFCW is similar to that found in horizontal flow constructed wetlands, but differs from common WWTPs regarding the presence of Nitrosospira.
Ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB), amoA, bacterial diversity, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), vertical flow constructed wetland
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