Talks and Poster Presentations (with Proceedings-Entry):

P. Ferschin, M. Di Angelo:
"An Approach to Formalize Traditional Balinese Architecture with Design Grammars";
Talk: International Symposium Insular Diversity: Architecture, Culture, and Identity in Indonesia, Vienna; 2011-05-18 - 2011-05-21; in: "Proc. International Symposium Insular Diversity: Architecture, Culture, and Identity in Indonesia", E. Lehner, I. Doubrawa, A. Ikaputra (ed.); IVA-ICRA, Wien (2011), ISBN: 978-3-900265-14-4; 151 - 158.

English abstract:
Traditional Balinese Architecture is known for its extensive rules at both, the microscopic level and the
macroscopic level, ranging from the design of villages to architectural elements. It is based on ancient
principles which "create balance, harmony and propriety between building, microcosmos and
macrocosmos, man and his God" [Budi95]. This Bali-Hinduistic philosophy can be observed in
traditional man built environments in Bali.
In architectural theory, design grammars have been introduced [Stin75] and used already in several
examples (like creating variations of possible Palladian villas [Stin78]). They remained conceptual
tools mainly, though. Computer implementations thereof are not widespread, e.g. [Maya05][Müll01]
Computer Graphics, on the other hand, has a long history of procedural modeling, like for plants
[Prus91]. Only procedural urban modelling appeared more recently [Müll01][Kell07].
Recent software tools like the CityEngine [@CE] have expanded the idea of design grammars and
allow for rapid generation of architectural models and entire urban structures of a specific
contemporary or historical style. Typically, composition rules are derived by analysing the outer
appearance of architectural representations, and lead to formalistic design patterns.
Our approach will focus on the underlying philosophy of Balinese architecture as well, and try to
formalize design rules from the principles of:
(1) Hierarchy of Space - Tri Angga/Tri Loka (2) Cosmological Orientation - Nawa Sanga Mandala
(3) Balanced Cosmology - Manik Ring Cucupu (4) Human Scale and Proportion (5) Open air "court"
concept (6) Clarity of structure (7) Truth of materials. [Budi95]
As these concepts are adaptable to location as well as the owner, a parametric, rule -based digital
model seems well suited to aid this complex design process. A practical evaluation of this approach
will be implemented with the aid of the CityEngine.
Our contribution is intended to be an interactive visualization of Bali-Hinduistic design principles, thus
helping to understand and preserve the architectural heritage of Bali.
[Budi95] Budihardjo, E. (1995). Architectural Conservation in Bali. Gadjah Mada University Press, Indonesia.
Environmental and Planning B (7).
[Kell07] Kelly, G. Et.al. (2007). Citygen: An Interactive System for Procedural City Generation. In: Proc. 5 Intl. Conf.
Computer Game Design and Technology, UK.
[Maya05] Mayall, K. et.al. (2005). Landscape Grammar 1: Spatial Grammar Theory and landscape planning.
Environmental and Planning B (32).
[Müll01] Müller, P. Et.al. (2001). Procedural Modelling of Buildings. In: Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH 2006/ Trans. Graphics
(TOG) ACM Press, Vol.25 (3).
[Prus91] Prusinkiewicz, P. et.al. (1991). The Algorithmic Beauty of Plants. Springer Verlag.
[Stin75] Stiny, G. (1975). Pictoral and Formal Aspects of Shape and Shape Grammars. Birkhauser Verlag, Basel.
[Stin78] Stiny, G. et.al. (1978). Counting Palladian Plans. Environmental and Planning B (7).
[@CE] CityEngine http://www.procedural.com/

Balinese Traditional Architecture, Cultural Heritage, Design Grammar, Procedural Modelling

Electronic version of the publication:

Related Projects:
Project Head Monika Di Angelo:
Dynamische Interaktive Visualisierung und Simulation

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