B. G. Pummer, H. Bauer, J. Bernardi, S. Bleicher, H. Grothe:
"Birch and conifer pollen are efficient atmospheric ice nuclei";
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussion, 11 (2011), S. 27219 - 27241.

Kurzfassung englisch:
The ice nucleation of bioaerosols (bacteria, pollen, spores, etc.) is a topic of growing interest, since their impact on ice cloud formation and thus on radiative forcing, an important parameter in global climate, is not yet fully understood. Here we show that pollen of 5 different species strongly differ in their ice nucleation behaviour. The average freezing temperatures in laboratory experiments range from 240 K to 255 K. As the most efficient nuclei (silver birch, Scots pine and common juniper pollen) have a distribution area up to the Northern timberline, their ice nucleation activity may be a cryoprotective mechanism. Far more intriguingly, it has turned out that water, which 10 has been in contact with pollen and then been separated from the bodies, nucleates as good as the pollen grains themselves. So the ice nuclei have to be easily- uspendable macromolecules located on the pollen surface. Once extracted, they can be distributed further through the atmosphere than the heavy pollen grains and so augment the impact of pollen on ice cloud formation even in the upper Troposphere. Our experiments 15 lead to the conclusion that pollen ice nuclei, in contrast to bacterial and fungal ice nucleating proteins, are non-proteinaceous compounds.

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