Publications in Scientific Journals:

F. Ryter, R. McDermott, T. Pütterich, J. Vicente, E. Viezzer, E. Wolfrum, C. Angioni, M. Bernert, J. Boom, R. Fischer, B. Geiger, S. da Graca, B. Kurzan, N. Luhmann Jr., H. Park, S. Rathgeber, P. Sauter, M. Willensdorfer, . ASDEX Upgrade Team:
"I-mode studies at ASDEX upgrade";
Proc. 38th EPS Conference on Plasma Physics, ISBN 2-914771-68-1, Strasbourg, France, 27.6 - 1.7.2011, Europhys. Conf. Abstracts, 35G (2011), P5.112; 1 - 4.

English abstract:
The H-mode threshold power, Pthres, is well-known to be low when the ion ÑB drift is towards
the X-point, while it is about 2 times higher when directed away from the X-point, the socalled
unfavourable configuration. In addition, Pthres is also about 2 times higher in hydrogen
compared to deuterium. These high Pthres cases provide conditions to study L-modes over a
wider range of heating power. Previous investigation in ASDEX Upgrade, [1, 2], revealed in
these scenarios that the power degradation of the confinement time was much weaker than
tE P−0.72 predicted by the scaling and these plasmas were named "Improved L-modes".
The weak power degradation is caused by an increase of the edge temperatures with a concomitant
steepening of the gradients, similar to the H-mode pedestal, whereas the density
profile almost does not change [3]. Therefore, these plasmas exhibit an edge transport barrier
for heat but L-mode particle transport. Recently, such plasmas, re-baptised "I-modes",
have been extensively studied in Alcator C-Mod [4, 5]. The same features in heat transport
have been observed and the lack of transport reduction in the particle channel is attributed
to fluctuations occurring at the pedestal top. Motivated by these studies and by the extended
experimental and diagnostic possibilities at ASDEX Upgrade, we also studied the I-mode.

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