G. Bauer, M.-A. Néouze, A. Limbeck:
"Dispersed Particle Extraction - A new procedure for trace element enrichment from natural aqueous samples with subsequent ICP-OES analysis";
A novel sample pre-treatment method for multi trace element enrichment from environmental waters prior to optical emission spectrometry analysis with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-OES) is proposed, based on dispersed particle extraction (DPE). This method is based on the use of silica nanoparticles functionalized with strong cation exchange ligands. After separation from the investigated sample solution, the nanoparticles used for the extraction are directly introduced in the ICP for measurement of the adsorbed target analytes. A prerequisite for the successful application of the developed slurry approach is the use of sorbent particles with a mean size of 500 nm instead of commercially available µm sized beads. The proposed method offers the known advantages of common bead-injection (BI) techniques, and further circumvents the elution step required in conventional solid phase extraction procedures. With the use of 14.4 mL sample and addition of ammonium acetate buffer and particle slurry limits of detection (LODs) from 0.03 µg L-1 for Be to 0.48 µg L-1 for Fe, with relative standard deviations ranging from 1.7 % for Fe and 5.5 % for Cr and an average enrichment factor of 10.4 could be achieved. By implementing this method the possibility to access sorbent materials with irreversible bonding mechanisms for sample pre-treatment is established, thus improvements in the selectivity of sample pre-treatment procedures can be achieved. The presented procedure was tested for accuracy with NIST standard reference material 1643e (river water) and was applied to drinking water samples from the vicinity of Vienna.
Enrichment procedure, renewable surface approach, functionalized nanoparticles, slurry introduction, ICP-OES
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