C. Simon, A. Belyakov, G. Feichtinger:
"Minimizing the dependency ratio in a population with below-replacement fertility through immigration";
Theoretical Population Biology, 82 (2012), 3; S. 158 - 169.

Kurzfassung englisch:
Many industrialized countries face fertility rates below replacement level,
combined with declining mortality especially in older ages. Consequently,
the populations of these countries have started to age. One important indicator
of age structures is the dependency ratio which is the ratio of the
nonworking age population to the working age population. In this work we
find the age-specific immigration profile that minimizes the dependency ratio
in a stationary population with below-replacement fertility. We consider two
alternative policies. First, we fix the total number of people who annually
immigrate to a country. Second, we prescribe the size of the receiving country´s
population. For both cases we provide numerical results for the optimal
immigration profile, for the resulting age-structure of the population, as well
as for the dependency ratio.

optimal control theory, stationary population, immigration, below-replacement fertility

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