S. Augustin, S. Hartmann, B. G. Pummer, H. Grothe, D. Niedermeier, T. Clauss, J. Voigtländer, L. Tomsche, H. Wex, F. Stratmann:
"Immersion freezing of birch pollen washing water";
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussion, 12 (2012), S. 32911 - 32943.

Kurzfassung englisch:
In the present study, the immersion freezing behavior of birch pollen, i.e. its ice nucleating active (INA) macromolecules, was investigated at the Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator (LACIS). For that, washing water of two different birch pollen samples with different regional origin (Northern birch and Southern birch) were used. The immersion freezing of droplets generated from the pollen washing water was already observed at temperatures higher than −20°C, for both samples. Main differences between the Northern birch pollen and the Southern birch pollen were obvious in a temperature range, between −18°C and −24°C, where the ice fraction increased with decreasing temperature. There, the Northern birch pollen washing water featured two different slopes, with one being steeper and one being similar to the slope of the Southern birch pollen washing water. As we assume single INA macromolecules being the reason for the ice nucleation, we concluded that the Northern birch pollen are able to produce at least two different types of INA macromolecules. We were able to determine the heterogeneous nucleation rates for both INA macromolecule types and so could explain the ice nucleation behavior of both, the Southern and the Northern birch pollen washing water.

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