K. Luczynski, A. Steiger-Thirsfeld, J. Bernardi, J. Eberhardsteiner, Ch. Hellmich:
"Extracellular Bone Matrix Exhibits Hardening Elastoplasticity and more than Double Cortical Strength: Evidence from Homogeneous Compression of Non-Tapered Single Micron-Sized Pillars Welded to a Rigid Substrate";
Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials,
We here report an improved experimental technique for the determination of Young׳s modulus and uniaxial strength of extracellular bone matrix at the single micrometer scale, giving direct access to the (homogeneous) deformation (or strain) states of the tested samples and to the corresponding mechanically recoverable energy, called potential or elastic energy. Therefore, a new protocol for Focused Ion Beam milling of prismatic non-tapered micropillars, and attaching them to a rigid substrate, was developed. Uniaxial strength turns out as at least twice that measured macroscopically, and respective ultimate stresses are preceded by hardening elastoplastic states, already at very low load levels. The unloading portion of quasi-static load-displacement curves revealed Young׳s modulus of 29 GPa in bovine extracellular bone matrix. This value is impressively confirmed by the corresponding prediction of a multiscale mechanics model for bone, which has been comprehensively validated at various other observation scales, across tissues from the entire vertebrate animal kingdom.
Bone; Focused ion beam milling; Homogeneous strain state; Micropillars; Unloading; Elastoplasticity
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