Publications in Scientific Journals:

M. Markovic, J. Van Hoorick, K. Hölzl, M. Tromayer, P. Gruber, S. Nürnberger, P. Dubruel, S. Van Vlierberghe, R. Liska, A. Ovsianikov:
"Hybrid Tissue Engineering Scaffolds by Combination of Three-Dimensional Printing and Cell Photoencapsulation";
J. Nanotechnol. Eng. Med, 6 (2015), 2; 021001 - 021008.

English abstract:
Three-dimensional (3D) printing offers versatile possibilities for adapting the structural parameters of tissue engineering scaffolds. However, it is also essential to develop procedures allowing efficient cell seeding independent of scaffold geometry and pore size. The aim of this study was to establish a method for seeding the scaffolds using photopolymerizable cell-laden hydrogels. The latter facilitates convenient preparation, and handling of cell suspension, while distributing the hydrogel precursor throughout the pores, before it is cross-linked with light. In addition, encapsulation of living cells within hydrogels can produce constructs with high initial cell loading and intimate cell-matrix contact, similar to that of the natural extra-cellular matrix (ECM). Three dimensional scaffolds were produced from poly(lactic) acid (PLA) by means of fused deposition modeling. A solution of methacrylamide-modified gelatin (Gel-MOD) in cell culture medium containing photoinitiator Li-TPO-L was used as a hydrogel precursor. Being an enzymatically degradable derivative of natural collagen, gelatin-based matrices are biomimetic and potentially support the process of cell-induced remodeling. Preosteoblast cells MC3T3-E1 at a density of 10  106 cells per 1 mL were used for testing the seeding procedure and cell proliferation studies. Obtained results indicate that produced constructs support cell survival and proliferation over extended duration of our experiment. The established two-step approach for scaffold seeding with the cells is simple, rapid, and is shown to be highly reproducible. Furthermore, it enables precise control of the initial cell density, while yielding their uniform distribution throughout the scaffold. Such hybrid tissue engineering constructs merge the advantages of rigid 3D printed constructs with the soft hydrogel matrix, potentially mimicking the process of ECM remodeling.

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