A. Hauptmann, K. Handle, P. Baloh, H. Grothe, T. Loerting:
"Does the emulsification procedure influence freezing and thawing of aqueous droplets?";
Journal of Chemical Physics,
Here we investigate the freezing and thawing properties of aqueous solutions in oil emulsions with a particular focus on investigating the influence of the oil and surfactant and the stirring time of the emulsion. Specifically we employ optical cryomicroscopy in combination with differential scanning calorimetry to study the phase behavior of emulsified 25 wt. % ammonium sulfate droplets in the temperature range down to 93 K. We conclude that the nucleation temperature does not vary with oil-surfactant combination that is homogeneous nucleation is probed. However incomplete emulsification and non-unimodal size distribution of dispersed droplets very often result in heterogeneous nucleation. This in turn affects the distribution of freeze-concentrated solution and the concentration of the solid ice/ammonium sulfate mixture and thus the phase behavior at sub-freezing temperatures. For instance the formation of letovicite at 183 K critically depends on whether the droplets have frozen heterogeneously or homogeneously. Hence the emulsification technique can be a very strong technique but it must be ensured that emulsification is complete i.e. a unimodal size distribution of droplets near 15 μm has been reached. Furthermore phase separation within the matrix itself or uptake of water from the air may impede the experiments.
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