Publications in Scientific Journals:
P. Wintersberger, C. Schartmüller, S. Shadeghian, A. Frison, A. Riener:
"Evaluation of Imminent Take-Over Requests With Real Automation on a Test Track";
Objective: Investigating take-over, driving, non-driving
related task (NDRT) performance, and trust of conditionally
automated vehicles (AVs) in critical transitions on a test track.
Background: Most experimental results addressing driver
take-over were obtained in simulators. The presented experiment
aimed at validating relevant findings while uncovering
potential effects of motion cues and real risk.
Method: Twenty-two participants responded to four
critical transitions on a test track. Non-driving related task
modality (reading on a handheld device vs. auditory) and takeover
timing (cognitive load) were varied on two levels. We
evaluated take-over and NDRT performance as well as gaze
behavior. Further, trust and workload were assessed with
scales and interviews.
Results: Reaction times were significantly faster than in
simulator studies. Further, reaction times were only barely
affected by varying visual, physical, or cognitive load. Post-takeover
control was significantly degraded with the handheld
device. Experiencing the system reduced participantsī distrust,
and distrusting participants monitored the system longer and
more frequently. NDRTs on a handheld device resulted in more
Conclusion: The results confirm that take-over performance
is mainly influenced by visual-cognitive load, while
physical load did not significantly affect responses. Future takeover
request (TOR) studies may investigate situation awareness
and post-take-over control rather than reaction times only.
Trust and distrust can be considered as different dimensions in
Application: Conditionally AVs should offer dedicated
interfaces for NDRTs to provide an alternative to using nomadic
devices. These interfaces should be designed in a way to
maintain driversī situation awareness.
Prī ecis: This paper presents a test track experiment addressing
conditionally automated driving systems. Twenty-two
participants responded to critical TORs, where we varied
NDRT modality and take-over timing. In addition, we assessed
trust and workload with standardized scales and interviews.
automated driving, automated vehicles, driver take-over, take-over request, handover
"Official" electronic version of the publication (accessed through its Digital Object Identifier - DOI)
Electronic version of the publication:
Created from the Publication Database of the Vienna University of Technology.